Max, a 12-year-old Chihuahua from Greenfield, New Jersey, was euthanized recently after he was exposed to rabies. While far from unusual, the case highlights the ongoing risk of rabies exposure as well as issues with understanding of rabies guidelines and communication.
Max was attacked by a rabid raccoon – an ever-present risk for animals that go outside (or get outside) in many regions. Animal control was called and the raccoon was caught. It was euthanized and rabies was confirmed, indicating that Max was very likely exposed to the virus.
Here’s where things seem to get strange. The paper reports:
"Once exposed to a rabid animal, a six-month quarantine is required for the exposed animal, even those animals that have been inoculated with a rabies vaccine."
- Not really. In Canada, standard guidelines are for a 6 month strict quarantine for dogs (and cats) that are not properly vaccinated, but only a 45 day observation period is required for vaccinated animals. I don’t know if in this jurisdiction they made up their own different rules, whether someone doesn’t know what’s supposed to be done or whether it’s poor reporting, but it’s a concern because it can be a difference between life and death… not necessarily from rabies, but from the quarantine requirements alone. People are often unwilling to undertake a strict 6 month quarantine and choose euthanasia (as was the case here), while the 45 day observation period is much more acceptable.
The attending veterinarian stated "Because of the way it was exposed and because of the positive, I think there was a really good chance this dog was going to get rabies".
- It’s certainly possible, and nowhere does it say whether Max was properly vaccinated. However, there’s a reason we vaccinate. It’s a highly effective vaccine and we’re trying to prevent disease. Nothing’s 100%, but with proper vaccination, the risk of rabies is greatly reduced.
It’s also stated that "due to the nature of rabies, until behavioral changes occur, the animal is not infectious".
- While this doesn’t have anything to do with Max’s situation, it’s not true. Animals can shed the virus for a short period before they show signs of illness. That’s the reason there is supposed to be a 10 day quarantine period after a dog bites someone – to see if the dog develops signs of rabies (which would have major implications for the person who was bitten).
Curiously, the article ends with a reminder to vaccinate pets, which seems kind of strange if their assumptions are that an exposed animal will get sick irrespective of vaccination status and that vaccination will have no impact on what happens to an animal after exposure.
However, despite the miscommunication, the take-home message emphasizing the need for vaccination should be heeded. As well, people making decisions about what to do after rabies exposure should make sure they do so based on the best evidence that’s available, namely the Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control.