In 2007, there was a massive equine influenza outbreak in Australia. A large number of horses were infected in this country that was previously equine influenza-free, and there was tremendous economic disruption caused by containment measures. It turns out horses weren’t the only animals infected. A report in the April edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases describes influenza infections in dogs associated with the equine outbreak.
In some ways, it’s not too surprising. Canine influenza in North America is caused by H3N8 influenza that moved from horses to dogs. Similarly, H3N8 influenza of equine origin has been identified in dogs in the UK. So, while it’s an uncommon event, we know that in some situations, the "standard" equine H3N8 influenza virus can infect dogs.
The first dog that was diagnosed lived near a large horse stable. The dog developed typical signs of influenza: decreased appetite, lethargy, nasal discharge and cough. After the first dog was identified, other dogs were noted to have similar signs, including dogs whose owners had contact with infected horses and dogs that had contact with other sick dogs. Some dogs had severe infections. Influenza was diagnosed through detection of antibodies in their blood, and the influenza virus was isolated from one dog. The virus that was isolated was the same as the one present in horses (and different from that in US dogs).
For influenza to jump between species a few things have to happen.
- First, the virus has to be able to infect the other (non-natural) species. This can happen because the virus is inherently able to infect different species or because of a random viral mutation that allows for infection of the new species.
- Second, the virus must encounter that host (in this case, dogs). It must then be able to multiply within the new host.
All this can happen with or without development of disease. For the virus to truly establish itself in the new species and spread (like canine flu did in the US):
- The virus must be able to multiply well in the new host, and adequate virus levels must be produced for the new host to be a source of infection to other individuals.
- The new host must come into contact with other susceptible individuals.
- The virus must be able to infect new hosts readily enough to maintain infection in the population, instead of dying out after a couple transmission cycles.
In these Australian cases, while it is apparent that equine flu was able to infect dogs, there was no clear evidence that perpetual dog-to-dog transmission occurred. Influenza virus was rarely detected in nasal secretions from infected dogs, making it unlikely that the virus would spread between dogs. Therefore, the virus was not able to establish itself in the dog population. This means it ended up being only an interesting situation that affected a limited number of animals, instead of the creation of a new, self-propagating infection that could continue to circulate in dogs in the country.