A cluster of Brucella canis infections has raised concerns in Calgary, Alberta, and hopefully will prompt more discussion about importation of dogs.
Brucella canis is a bacterium that can infect both dogs and people, although it’s natural host is dogs (more specifically, dogs that are not neutered or spayed). Human infections are quite rare but they can be nasty, and therefore need to be taken seriously. Infections are sporadically identified in dogs in Canada, but it seems to be a very rare disease overall, and most cases I’ve dealt with have been in dogs that were imported.
The latest incident involves identification of brucellosis in five dogs. The first case, not surprisingly, was imported, having come from somewhere in the southern US. Three other dogs also from the southern US had contact with the first dog. The fifth case, concerningly, was a local Alberta dog that had contact with the first dog. There seems to have also recently been another unrelated Brucella canis infection in a local dog that originated from Mexico.
The main human health risk associated with Brucella canis is contact with breeding animals, as the bacterium is shed mainly in vaginal discharge, placental and fetal fluids, semen and aborted fetuses. Contact with dogs that have given birth or aborted is the main concern. The bacterium can be shed in urine, but that seems to be less of a concern, particularly with otherwise healthy dogs. The risk to the general public is therefore quite low, but it’s important to try to control this bacterium because of the potential for serious human disease.
Brucellosis is just one of many potential disease risks with imported dogs. As I’ve discussed previously, there is little to no control over importation of dogs and little comprehensive guidance for people who are importing them. This is a big reason why we are seeing certain "foreign" diseases in dogs in Canada (e.g. leishmaniasis). We sorely need a comprehensive approach to dog importation to help reduce the risk of disease entry and help people who choose to import dogs do so safely.
This cluster of infections can also be found on our new disease tracking site, http://www.wormsandgermsmap.com.