As the current (and unprecedented) H5N1 avian flu outbreak continues, there’s the ongoing threat of transmission to other species. The extent of spread to mammals is hard to say since it’s hard to know how many wild mammals have been infected. However, we know that an impressive range of species has been infected. Spread to

I’ve written (ranted?) about this before – namely the misuse of antimicrobials intended for treatment of aquarium fish in other species. Usually such posts are followed by a deluge of nasty emails along with a bunch of curious requests for links to fish antibiotic sellers (8% kickback available!).

Another sponsorship request came in this morning

We have different  approaches to rabies in dogs and cats versus humans. The ultimate goal is still the same: preventing this almost invariably fatal infection. However, between humans and animals there are differences in who we target for vaccination, frequency of vaccination, utility of rabies antibody titres, and how we respond to potential rabies exposures,

Titres… ugh. I spend a lot of time answering questions about titres, with little data to go on.

What are titres?

Titres are a measure of antibody levels in the bloodstream. Antibodies are produced by the body in response to infection or vaccination.

What do titres tell us?

Titres indicate whether a specific antibody is

For some reason, I’ve been spending a lot more time lately discussing vaccination, so I figured I’d write about a series of vaccine issues, questions and dogmas (that are often non-evidence-based or just downright wrong).

Age for first rabies vaccine

Here in Canada at least, rabies vaccines are licensed for use in dogs and cats

With any new, changing or inadequately investigated infectious disease, we need to first understand the scope of the problem, including the range of species that can be infected. The ongoing human monkeypox outbreak has raised concern about spillback of monkeypox virus into animals from humans since, we don’t know much about susceptible animal species.